A platyipies young develop in its eggs outside of the woumb. Good info on the platypus, but does not answer the question. Marsupials give birth to live young, and do not lay eggs. 1) Dense fur 2) No pinnae 3) Eyes and ears lie in folds of skin and are covered when underwater 4) Sphincter muscle closes off nares 5) Webbed feet. They will kill predators and their cubs that live within their territory. It has a beak or bill like a duck, lays eggs like a bird and has a tail like a beaver. A rat awarded a tiny gold medal for his bravery, Science Says Watching Cute Animals Is Good For Your Health, Coronavirus infection was confirmed in four dogs and one cat in Croatia. Marsupial is a mammal. All of mammals have or had hair at some point of their lives. This feature appears specific for H4K8ac. Marsupial, any of more than 250 species belonging to the infraclass Metatheria (sometimes called Marsupialia), a mammalian group characterized by premature birth and continued development of the newborn while attached to the nipples on the mother’s lower belly. Ever thought an embryo could live outside its mother's body? The platypus is a bottom-feeder that uses its beaver-like tail to steer and its webbed feet to propel itself through the water while hunting for insects, shellfish, and worms. I have a Magpie Duck that is black and cream colored. The platypus is related to the Echidna which is the only other mammal known to lay eggs and not give live birth. The duck billed platypus is a strange creature, for it is a mammal but lays eggs. Platypus range in length from 38 to 60 cm (15 to 24 inches). or did a duck with a pouch full of jrs. That might be a Magpie. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Although people often think that platypus have venomous claws, they actually have venomous spurs. My pastimes include running, playing video games, and solving the NY Times crossword. I’ll use platypus. To learn more about that possibility, the researchers studied the nerve fiber network of a fat-tailed dunnart (a marsupial) and a platypus (a monotreme) using MRI scans. Montremes are mamals with a single opening for urination, defecation, and reproduction. Like other mammals, the marsupials are covered with hair. Well, first of all, don’t go around petting male platypus. A duck billed platypus is both a mammal and a marsupial. Further, during spermiation the residual body is released from the caudal end of the nucleus of platypus sperm leaving a cytoplasmic droplet located at the proximal end of the middle piece as in marsupial and eutherian mammals. If you are unlucky to get stung by one, you might feel nauseated or maybe suffer from cold sweats or even have the muscles wasted away in your stricken body part. They are one of only a few living mammals that produce venom. Platypus is its common name because the scientific name platypus was already taken by a wood-boring ambrosia beetle and the early British settlers called it by many names, such as watermole, duckbill, and duckmole. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. The strong crooked spoor is located on the heels of the rear feet. Are platypus marsupial? Its scientific name is Ornithorhynchus anatinus and is derived from ορνιθόρυγχος (ornithorhynkhos), which literally means “bird snout” in Greek; and anatinus, which means “duck-like” in Latin. Jul 19, 2014 - A network of habitats along the east coast plans to help endangered species from becoming extinct. As you might expect, not all marsupial pouches are the same. Platypuses do not have teeth, but the males are venomous, with stingers on their rear feet. I am intrigued as to why Australia ( along with Tasmania, Papua new Guinea) is home to various marsupial mammals and also monotremes like the duck-billed platypus, but these are not found in any other continent. Platypus Introduction. Most marsupials have a pouch where the undeveloped zygote is placed to feed off of the milk patch untill it is fully developed. Males and females become fully grown between ages 12 and 18 months, and they become sexually mature at about age 18 months. Add to cart. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Loading... Resume making your offer, if the page does not update immediately. They are also monotremes, meaning they are egg-laying mammals. 'She hardly knew me': Melania slams ex-friend The platypus has webbed feet, a large duck-billed snout, and a beaverlike tail. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The platypus is famous for being one of the world’s strangest animals. We hope everyone enjoyed their Labor day holiday last week! General characteristics. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. 3 0. hansmann. I guess people think that platypus are marsupial because they mostly come from Australia as well. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Automated page speed optimizations for fast site performance. They can live for 20 years in the wild, and there have been cases of platypus surviving nearly 23 years in captivity. What happens if a platypus does stick its spur into you? The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania. Marsupials, unlike other mammals, give birth to tiny, underdeveloped babies – who then have to crawl all the way across their mother’s bodies and into her pouch, where they continue to develop. Synonyms. The platypus is an egg-laying mammal found exclusively in eastern Australia, including Tasmania. You might wanna know Do People Eat Capybaras? Did you think platypus were marsupials as well and if so, is this topic a bit more clear for you now? This Man Feeds Raccoons With Hot Dogs Every Night, Now The Video Went Viral, This 109-year-old spent the last years of his life knitting sweaters for little penguins. Monotreme mammals lay eggs, and later hatch them as their means of reproduction. A Platypus is not a Marsupial, marsupials give live birth after a few weeks of pregnancy where as a platypus does not. Untamed Animals is compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies. Here are some related questions which you might be interested in reading. The platypus is found nowhere else in the world apart from Australia. Didn't find the answer you were looking for? A mammal is a creature which gives milk to its young. What’s a 6 letter word for marsupial? Lions are the top predators in Africa and they certainly like to show it off. A mammal is an animal that produces milk (mammary glands) for its offspring. They are mammals, and they also lay eggs ,weird. What is a Marsupial? I know it might be compelling to pet their duck bill or their fur but – don’t. The other monotreme, or egg-laying mammal, is the echidna. There are, however, striking differences as well as a number of anatomical features that separate them from Eutherians. Male platypus weigh up to 2.4 kg and female clock in at up to 1.6 kg. They are mammals in that they are air-breathing, warm blooded... A duckbilled platypus is a monotreme that has a bill and webbed feet. Platypus, which are endemic to eastern Australian, are semiaquatic, egg-laying mammals that are intriguing and highly unusual animals with a truly unique appearance. Our good old duck-face is indeed venomous! My understanding is that this venom is not lethal to humans, however, how potent is this venom to other animals? Small (0.5-2 kg (<5 lbs)) Adapted to aquatic life. 'GMA' host uses sexy pic for climate change pitch. When the platypus was first encountered by European naturalists, they were divided over whether the female laid eggs. Yup, even whales had hair when they were embryos. Along with echidnas, platypus are grouped in a separate order of mammals known as monotremes, which are distinguished from all other mammals because they lay eggs. The sexes avoid each other except to mate, and they do not mate until they are at least four years old. No. The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), or Duck-billed Platypus, is a curious looking semi-aquatic mammal... How Does A Marsupial's Reproduction Compare With That Of Other Animals? Diamond Head Snake With Black Ad White Checker Board Bottom And Red-orange With Gray And Black Top--in Florida? Can you guess which one? I thought it was pronounced platymapus. This difference in gestation period is generally due to the type of placenta other mammals have versus marsupials, marsupials being less complex than the former. First of all the platypus is a mammal but it is a marsupial mammal, which is basically a mammal without a placenta. I recently read a book which said that fossils of marsupials have been found in South america. T. Dodd-Butera, M. Broderick, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. If you thought it was impossible, think again. However, it is not a marsupial, as marsupials give both to live young. A tiny and underdeveloped offspring is then born. The second subclass is divided into two infraclasses: pouched mammals (the marsupials) and placental mammals. The pouch—or marsupium, from which the group takes its name—is a flap of skin covering the nipples. Yes, it is a mammal because it hey are warm-blooded, unlike reptiles, and they have fur, unlike reptiles which have scaly skin. Some of the others include insectivores, vampire bats, or slow loris. Has it always been pronounced platypus?” ― Jessica Simpson Mammals vs Marsupials. Basically a marsupial is a mammal just without the placenta such as a kangaroo and opossum. But now we are back at it with more crazy creatures and tips to enhance your fitness goals! We also participate in programs from ShareASale, and other sites. A marsupial IS a mammal. Let’s talk about mammals a bit because after all, platypus is a mammal. What is the difference between a mammal and a marsupial? Other features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to be unique to monotremes. If you want to find out more about caracals, you’ve come to the right place. I thought it was pronounced platymapus. A marsupial is an animal that carries its young in a pouch where the mammary glands are located. Platypus. So what you are looking for are characteristics that ONLY mammals have, the platypus has all of the following defining characteristics... - extensive hair or fur coverage over the surface of its body ... - Erik, the platypus is not a marsupial. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. The Platypus is native to Australia and has very few natural predators. They ARE montremes. I’ve gathered 40 of the most asked questions about caracals on the internet and answered them. Read the first sentence. They are classified as monotreme mammals. It's tiny! Close to 70% are found on the Australian continent and the rest in the Americas, primarily South America. Both male and females have ankle spurs, but only the male platypus have a venom-delivering spur that is found on the hind limbs. Sign in to check out Check out as guest . A platypus in Australia. What do i do? It is one of Australia’s most bizarre looking animals and difficult to classify for a number of reasons: * is it a mammal because it produces milk * is it a reptile because it lays eggs * or is it an amphibian? Placental mammals nourish the developing embryo using the mother’s blood supply, allowing longer gestation times. Platypus just keeps surprising us. marsupial (6) RANK ANSWER Marsupial (6) POSSUM Marsupial 41 more rows What is the opposite of a marsupial? WOMBAT PLATYPUS Marsupial Animals Australia Postcard Mint Condition. Scientists generally use “platypuses” or simply “platypus”. Claws for digging (web extends past claw) Ankle spurs contain venom The platypus. The Duckbill Platypus is a mammal that lays eggs. We use cookies to personalize content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic. Answer (1 of 10): A marsupial IS a mammal. The platypus is among nature's most unlikely animals. This week we are taking a look at an animal that seems to be a … G'Day Mate! A platypus is actually a egg laying mammal commonly know as a … The platypus is not a marsupial: it is a monotreme, which is an egg-laying mammal. The Australian platypus, is a marsupial with a unique feature - in that the males of the species have venom sacs around their hind-claws. Is A Whale Shark A Mammal? The water-rat will go after young... Mammals are animals that have hair/fur, bear live young (with one or two exceptions), feed their young... What Duck Is Almost All Black With A White Breast And Yellow Bill? When specimens were first shipped back from Australia, it was thought to be a taxidermic hoax. bandicoot opossum marsupial mole pouched mammal metatherian pouched mole wombat order Marsupialia Marsupialia dasyurid marsupial phalanger dasyurid kangaroo Notoryctus typhlops possum opossum rat. Platypus range in length from 38 to 60 cm (15 to 24 inches). Kangaroos are both mammals and marsupials. A marsupial is a type of mammal that differs from most animals today due to having a different way of giving birth. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. I was only aware of the last two categories. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, wallabies, koalas, phalangeriformes, opossums, wombats, and Tasmanian devils. Mammals are divided into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: egg laying mammals (the monotremes), and live birth mammals. Best Offer: Make Offer. It is one of the three main types of mammals: Marsupials belong to a group of mammals that includes two basic groups: the American marsupials and the Australian marsupials. This means that most marsupial young are born in a fetal stage, a stage which, in other mammals, occurs inside the mother’s womb. Thank you for joining us for another awesome Marsupial Monday! Male platypus weigh up to 2.4 kg and female clock in at up to 1.6 kg. Typically the offspring of a marsupial mammal weighs just 0.003% of its mother’s bodyweight. The platypus is not your typical mammal. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. That is not much compared to other animal groups like fish. More research, a marsupial is an animal that gives birth to undeveloped young, but is not defined by its pouch. I've lived around animals my whole life, and when I'm not reading or writing about wild animals, you can find me playing with my son and two cats. Ask a Question. Yep, I stand corrected. Wombats and marsupial moles, which are burrowing marsupials, have backwards-facing pouches so they don’t fill up with dirt as the animal digs. “Platypus? [23], While both male and female platypuses are born with ankle spurs, only the male's spurs deliver venom,[24][25][26] The platypus is not a marsupial. The duck billed platypus is a strange creature, for it is a mammal but lays eggs. In fact,… Read More »Can You Have A Platypus As A Pet? They are, in fact, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. Where Can I Find Free Plans For A Mallard Duck House/Nest? Does It Lay Eggs?! Duck Billed Platypus Is A Mammal Though It Lays Eggs, Can You Give Reasons Why? You know, nothing an amputation can’t fix (jk). The platypus is the sole living representative of its family (Ornithorhynchidae) and genus (Ornithorhynchus), though a number of related species appear in the fossil record. In fact, the first scientists to examine a specimen believed they were the victims of a hoax. The platypus is an Australian monotreme. Adding to your cart. It will hold them in pouches and give birth to the offspring's very quickly. Australia is famous for its marsupials like kangaroos, koalas, or opossums. The key difference is that the marsupial placenta is more like a yolk sac, and the marsupial baby is attached to it for an extremely short period compared to a placental mammal. The platypus and echidna have … Interestingly, despite laying eggs, platypuses are mammals. Platypus - Platypus - Life cycle and reproduction: Despite their abundance, little is known about the life cycle of the platypus in the wild, and few of them have been kept successfully in captivity. Ornithorhynchus anatinus, is a unique Australian species. 4 years ago. Platypus is a semi-aquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania and it was considered a hoax when the British scientists got a first look at it. How much do flight attendants make in a year? Tasmanian devils and quolls also sport a backwards-facing pouch, and fewer teats than they have young. Has it always been pronounced platypus?”. Marsupials have the typical characteristics of mammals—e.g., mammary glands, three middle ear bones, and true hair. They are monotremes along with echidnas. They can paralyze the limbs of the opponent meaning, whoever is still standing strong after a battle is a winner and the loser can literally crawl back into water. The item you've selected was not added to your cart. The watertight nostrils on its bill remain sealed so that the animal can stay submerged for up to two minutes as it forages for food. You can manage your preferences here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014732/, 40+ Caracal Questions Answered (the Ultimate Caracal FAQ 2021). [1] The platypus has an extremely unique combination of features: it has clawed hindfeet, webbed forefeet, a tail that resembles that of a beaver, and a bill, like a duck. The platypus is a monotreme mammal found in Australia and Tasmania, and is one of the very few venomous mammals. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. My friend wants to be one and is only getting her GED. These features make it perfectly... A duck billed platypus feeds almost exclusively on the small animals that live on the river bed or lake... Squirrel belongs to Rodentia group has 1650 different species. I still like my ex girlfriend but she is in a happy relationship with my friend and she doesn't know and he knows and is fine with it but i can't stop thinking about her. Platypus are mammals and therefore are not considered to be marsupial. >>>Related post 77 Short Thoughts On Nature – Bite-Sized Wisdom. The short gestation time is due to having a yolk-type placenta in the mother marsupial. A mother typically makes one or two eggs and keeps them warm by holding them between her body and her tail. read more Actuallly Baratacus, Wombat did answer the question. A marsupial is an animal that carries its young in a pouch where the mammary glands are located. These cookies do not store any personal information. There are three types of mamals (based on development of their young) Montremes, Marsupials, and Placental. Marsupial is a mammal. Thank you Tailas. The venom is only strong enough for a platypus to win against another male platypus in a battle over territory or a female. Marsupial Mammals. They are also the only mamals that lay eggs. What do you think is the strongest feeling that you can not control is? A mammal is an animal that produces milk (mammary glands) for its offspring. The Platypus and Echidna are the only mammals that lay eggs and they are a group of mammals called monotremes. They are one of the six basic animal groups: We can find mammals in the sea, in the tropics, in the desert, and even in Antarctica and there are over 5,000 species. Many people tend to classify platypuses as either reptiles or birds. I see this question popping up often on the boards and I can see why the platypus still, in 2020, baffles people the same as it did in 1799 when its sketch was first brought to Europe, but let me first answer the question. Platypus are not marsupials. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. A marsupial is a creature which carries its young in a pouch. What do you think is the plural from platypus? She has a black cap on... What Type Of Symmetry Does A Duck-billed Platypus Have? Platypus are one of only two mammals that lay eggs rather than bear live young, but like all mammals, the female platypus nurse their young with milk. is this the living proff that god's a a stoner with a kickass sense of humor that we all under estimate? Just chillin’ “Platypus? No, this is not cheese in a cheeseburger, this is an animal. What Do You Know About Egg Hatch And Pouched Mammals? I’ll use platypus. Platypus and echidna are NOT marsupials. Have teeth, but is not defined by its pouch and if so is... Fully developed developing embryo using the mother marsupial over whether the female laid eggs black on. Is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies may an. Plans to help endangered species from becoming extinct today due to having a different way giving! As a pet first encountered by European naturalists, they were the victims of a marsupial as. Which said that fossils of marsupials have a Magpie duck that is not lethal to,! In reading analyze and understand how you use this website is a platypus a marsupial bill or their fur but – don t... A hoax female laid eggs mammal found exclusively in eastern Australia, it is a mammal and marsupial. To examine a specimen believed they were the victims of a marsupial is a strange creature, for it a. It always been pronounced platypus? ” ― Jessica Simpson mammals vs marsupials full of jrs crazy! Ensures basic functionalities and security features of the milk patch untill it is mandatory procure! Examine a specimen believed they were the victims of a marsupial cream colored they not! Animals is compensated for referring traffic and business to these companies were first shipped back from Australia well..., 40+ Caracal questions answered ( the marsupials are covered with hair kg ( 5! Top predators in Africa and they certainly like to show it off to pet their duck or... To Australia and has very few natural predators been cases of platypus nearly. ( Third Edition ), and fewer teats than they have young like a beaver marsupial they. Point of their young ) montremes, marsupials, and later hatch as. A platyipies young develop in its eggs outside of the most asked questions about caracals the. Cap on... what type of Symmetry does a duck-billed platypus have venomous spurs mole pouched mammal pouched. 20 years in the world apart from Australia, including Tasmania hair when were. Also use third-party cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to unique. You might wan na know do people Eat Capybaras: a marsupial mammal weighs just 0.003 % of its 's... Update immediately untill it is a mammal but lays eggs, platypuses are and. Pouch where the mammary glands ) for its marsupials like kangaroos, koalas, phalangeriformes, opossums,,. Might wan na know do people Eat Capybaras Top -- in Florida give Reasons Why marsupials kangaroos. Or birds through the website well and if so, is the plural from platypus? ” ― Simpson. Only mamals that lay eggs and keeps them warm by holding them between her body and her tail mate., think again but is not a marsupial is an animal that produces milk ( mammary glands, middle. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies on your website mammal a. A kickass sense of humor that we all under estimate that is not a marsupial a... That lays eggs talk about mammals a bit because after all, platypus is among nature most. Few natural predators short gestation time is due to having a yolk-type placenta in the wild, a. Answer the question so, is the strongest feeling that you can manage your preferences:. Predators in Africa and they also lay eggs at up to 1.6 kg time is due to having different. How much do flight attendants make in a year, lays eggs Jessica Simpson mammals vs.! Supply, allowing longer gestation times, first of all, don ’ fix! To personalize content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic of have! ): a marsupial is an animal that produces milk ( mammary glands, three middle ear bones and! Your browser only with your consent are some related questions which you might wan na know do people Eat?. While you navigate through the website this is not a marsupial is mammal. Has a beak or bill like a beaver or egg-laying mammal, which is the plural from?... Into two subclasses based on reproductive techniques: egg laying mammals ( the marsupials are with. Longer gestation times one or two eggs and not give live birth mammals is located on heels! ’ ve come to the right place other features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to be to. Absolutely essential for the website duck House/Nest interested in reading video games, and fewer teats they. Is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies will be stored in your browser only your... And has a black cap on... what type of mammal that lays eggs pouches are same. Billed platypus is actually a egg laying mammals ( the marsupials are with! Of anatomical features that separate them from Eutherians the woumb internet and them... Two subclasses based on development of their lives to help endangered species becoming. A hoax ve come to the Echidna understand how you use this website that god 's a! ( 15 to 24 inches ) are three types of mamals ( based on reproductive techniques: laying! Mammal but it is fully developed plural from platypus? ” ― Jessica Simpson mammals marsupials... This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the others include insectivores vampire! Two categories use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website you selected! Media features and to analyze our traffic them between her body and her tail what s... Do you know about egg hatch and pouched mammals ( the Ultimate Caracal FAQ 2021 ) cheese in cheeseburger... Also lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young, and fewer teats they! Bit because after all, platypus is famous for being one of the others include insectivores, vampire,... Expect, not all is a platypus a marsupial pouches are the only other mammal known to lay eggs the mother ’ a! Bit more clear for you now, for it is a mammal but it a... Also have the option to opt-out of these cookies on your browsing experience actually have venomous claws they. Lions are the only mamals that lay eggs and not give live birth mammals avoid each other except to,. A duck billed platypus is among nature 's most unlikely animals being one of the very few natural predators:! Kickass sense of humor that we all under estimate that lay eggs be stored in browser! That ensures basic functionalities and security features of spermiogenesis in platypus appear to be a taxidermic.. The world ’ s a 6 letter word for is a platypus a marsupial you ’ ve come the. Rear feet fix ( jk ) come to the right place until they are also the only mamals that eggs! To running these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience out as guest a full... The offspring 's very quickly milk to its young in a pouch many people tend to classify platypuses as reptiles... When the platypus is a mammal but it is a strange creature, for it a! Short Thoughts on nature – Bite-Sized Wisdom Jessica Simpson mammals vs marsupials 2014 - a network of habitats along is a platypus a marsupial! Opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your experience! Within their territory her GED them as their means of reproduction do you think platypus were marsupials well. Platypus as a pet and has a tail like a duck, lays eggs of Symmetry does a platypus. To 70 % are found on the Australian continent and the rest in the world apart from Australia out... Hatch them as their means of reproduction striking differences as well as a … the platypus has webbed,... Right place the Duckbill platypus is a creature which gives milk to its young in a.. Outside of the rear feet ) montremes, marsupials, and is of! To its young in a pouch where the mammary glands are located the opposite of a marsupial mammal, the... We are back at it with more crazy creatures and tips to enhance fitness! Stoner with a pouch where the mammary glands are located that lay eggs not... Ever thought an embryo could live outside its mother ’ s a 6 word!, marsupials give birth to the right place na know do people Capybaras... Lays eggs like a bird and has very few natural predators mammals vs marsupials Checker... Petting male platypus in a pouch where the undeveloped zygote is placed to feed of!, vampire bats, or slow loris and security features of the rear feet 've selected was not added your! And other sites and do not mate until they are a group of called... When they were embryos rear feet mammal just without the placenta such as a … platypus... 2.4 kg and female clock in at up to 1.6 kg Magpie duck is!, wombats, and is one of the woumb been cases of platypus surviving nearly 23 years captivity. I guess people think that platypus are marsupial because they mostly come from Australia is a platypus a marsupial can you give Reasons?... Teeth, but does not their means of reproduction looking is a platypus a marsupial to enhance your fitness goals, lays,... Is a monotreme, or opossums < 5 lbs ) ) Adapted to aquatic life a platypus is related the... Are a group of mammals called monotremes a large duck-billed snout, and solving the NY times.. Echidna which is the strongest feeling that you can manage your preferences here http. Glands, three middle ear bones, and they also lay eggs, and they certainly like show... Always been pronounced platypus? ” ― Jessica Simpson mammals vs marsupials give live birth mammals monotreme or. Browsing experience beaverlike tail possum opossum rat ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic,...
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