Richness and cover of non‐native species were highest at the edges of the remnant and declined to relatively uniform levels within the remnant. Interpreting Wetland Status. Some forms have bright yellow culms (stems). it can be a useful indicator of the level of disturbance in an area. Mallett, K. & Orchard, A.E. The The reintroduction of these grasses is a critical step for understorey restoration. Themeda triandra is an indicator of the veld being in good condition. Burbridge, N.T. the seed has a dormancy period of up to 12 months depending on the area where Acknowledgement of Traditional Owners and Country. Although impacted, the Themeda triandra grassland and the natural wetland vegetation types are considered of high ecological function as the patterns and processes within this community are still present and the functions as they would be in a natural state. Themeda genus and T. triandra in particular via phyloge - netic reconstructions. Van Oudtshoorn, F. 1999. There are 5 groups of grasses: Decreasers, Increaser I, Increaser II, Increaser III and Invaders. Themeda triandra is a very important and well-known grazing grass that is palatable especially when young. The spikelets (grass flowers) form wedge-shaped, usually hanging clusters that may or may not be hairy, with long black or white hairs. Themeda triandra is a tufted, perennial grass that forms spreading or upright clumps, usually about 0.5 metres high but may reach about 1.5 metres high. Chippindall, L.K.A. higher floristic status, species diversity consisting of the grasses Themeda triandra, Brachiaria eruciformis, Eragrostis racemosa, Setaria species, S. sphacelata, Aristida species Fingerhuthia africana and the forbs Hermannia depressa, Scabiosa columbaria, Helichrysum rugulosum and H. aureonitens. It is also known to be resistant to fire, the resistance increasing when burnt regularly, but only if rested after fire and if overgrazing does not occur. Abstract. A sea of orange-brown flower heads and leaves in summer. practices. community, Action Plan 1. Index. the clumps can be cut back in early spring to encourage new green growth. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock grass endemic to Africa, Australia and Asia. The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. stems. The grass clumps do not need a lot of maintenance; dead leaves can be raked In Lesotho and bordering areas it is used sometimes for thatching and some basketry. Fire or temperatures of 40–45° C may also break Ecological status of grass species in the red turfveld of the Springbok Flats Turf Thornveld, Transvaal P.J. are under threat due to loss and fragmentation through inadequate land management Growth tends to be most vigorous in summer. larger. Kangaroo Grass can be grown from seed or by division of older clumps. Themeda triandra Forssk. This grass is widespread in South Africa, growing in undisturbed grasslands to savanna, in areas of average to high rainfall. Leistner, O.A. vulgaris auct. Habitat Dominant in the extensive Acacia-grasslands at elevations from 1,200 - 2,000 metres in East Africa, and widespread elsewhere in grassland and in open woodlands, especially on … Because it is widespread across these areas it has great economic and ecological value, as it is a relatively palatable species across most of its range. Approximately 2/3 of seed collected from one inflorescence will be still use the name T. australis. The spikelets are also awned, that is they have long stiff bristle-like projections. Nel, G.J. growing conditions for T. triandra can be quite variable so it is best 1.1 Objectives of the preliminary ecological survey • To provide a description of the current environmental status and habitats occurring on the Jabulani site. The leaves are usually greyish green but forms with a blue-grey colour can be found. The Atlas of Living Australia acknowledges Australia’s Traditional Owners and pays respect to the past and present Elders of the nation’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Data were gathered from subjectively selected sample plots to represent different stages of degradation. Environment ACT, Canberra. Acknowledgement of Traditional Owners and Country. Lyn FishNational Herbarium, PretoriaApril 2004, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape, Western Cape, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer, Autumn. Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. imberbis (Retz.)A. & Crook, A.O. Field and laboratory experiments suggest that Available at: http://www.cpbr.gov.au/avh/ [Accessed: 2004, 5 February]. a native habitat garden or can be grown in a more formal garden for its interesting Pressley, M.) (1990) Grasses (barb) at the base of the seed. Synonym(s) Heterotypic =Themeda triandra var. Interpreting Wetland Status. The long awns of the spikelet twirl when wet, and drive the seed into the ground. (1994) Grasses of New South Wales. There are many species of grasses that occur throughout South Africa and each species has been given an ecological status which groups similar types of grass together based on their reaction to grazing. Description. Within these regions it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems. Collins, Harare (Salisbury). Paper pulp can also be made from the culms (stems). 17 plant name records match your search criteria Themeda triandra.The results are below. CSIRO Publishing, Victoria. Although Themeda triandra itself is not endangered as a species it does AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. To date, not much is known about the cultivation of our indigenous grasses in gardens, and only some nurseries have started selling them. As ); rooigras (Afr.). Wetland Status. It commonly grows in grassland and open woodland communities. )Stapf =Anthistiria ciliata var. in the Australian Capital Territory and threatened in Victoria. =Themeda triandra var. Themeda species Themeda triandra Name Synonyms Andropogon ciliatus Thunb. Text by Jennifer Liles (2004 Student Botanical Intern). The Plants Database includes the following 6 species of Themeda . The 'plant indigenous' drive and the trend to 'wild gardens' in garden design has changed this. Wheeler, D.J.B. 1, Angus and Robertson, Kangaroo Grass does not transplant well but success has been (2000) Grassed Up. Because of its large distribution, ACT Government (1997) Natural Temperate Grassland: An endangered ecological widespread Kangaroo Grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the most recognisable It is a well-known grazing grass, forming, where dominant, the red grass or rooigrasveld (grasslands) in parts of South Africa. This is a tufted perennial grass which is very variable in appearance and size, ranging from 0.3-1.5 m in height. When planted out, water crystals and slow release as they both turn brown and retain their awns, but generally fertile seed is Available at: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html [Accessed: 2004, 5 February]. The meaning of the genus name Themeda is obscure, but it is Arabic and appears to have something to do with water or possibly the lack thereof. February. If you are harvesting and sowing a lot of seed beware of the sharp callus Brid, CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, GipP, Glep, Gold, GGr, HNF, HSF, LoM, MonT, MuF, MuM, NIS, OtP, OtR, SnM, Strz, VAlp, VRiv, VVP, WaP, WPro, Wim.All States, also Africa and warmer Asian countries, New Guinea, Philippines etc. Grasses of the eastern Free State. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. Related Links. http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni.html. Eddy, D., Mallinson, D., Rehwinkel, R. and Sharp, S. (2001) Grassland Flora. An established plant can be obtained from a nursery or, depending on the rains in November or December, whole culms with inflorescences can be cut and laid on the ground. to an orange brown in summer. Although the grass grows in any type of soil, it prefers clay and soils with high organic content. Spikelets have long distinguishing spathes at their base and bare florets triandra and a separate Australian species Themeda australis. hispida Stapf =Themeda triandra var. Andropogon tenuipedicellatus Steud. & Cade, J.W. Themeda triandra is considered by some to be two species, the African and Asian species T. In some parts of Africa it is used for thatching, but the forms found in southern Africa tend to be flimsy and not durable enough. may be sown straight away with some success in mid summer to autumn but generally It is also known to be resistant to fire, the resistance increasing when burnt regularly, but only if rested after fire and if overgrazing does not occur. Not registered yet? Ecological Notes. The flowering period is from December to (2002) The Flora of Australia, Poaceae 1. The National Vegetation Survey (NVS) Databank is a physical archive and electronic databank containing records of over 94,000 vegetation survey plots - including data from over 19,000 permanent plots. achieved with square tube stock pots which air prune the roots and stop the ... Themeda japonica . dormancy. (1966) Australian Grasses, vol. Sydney. CD-ROM, These areas are more Anthistiria argentea Nees Anthistiria arguens f. japonica Andersson Anthistiria arguens var. Simon, B.K. (2002) AusGrass: Grasses of Australia. Login to add your Comment The ecological impact envisaged is high on most parts, but higher on lower lying areas close to the wetland system on the west of the study area. =*Themeda triandra var. It is sometimes hard to distinguish fertile from infertile seeds Vol. UNIQWA, Phuthaditjhaba. Environment ACT, Canberra. Bains, J.A. triandra - from the Greek words treis (three) The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding).. See "Status", "Confidence level", "Source" for definitions. Camus =Anthistiria imberbis Retz. The species name tri (three) and andr (man) is Greek, referring to the three male spikelets surrounding the bisexual spikelet in each cluster. seedlings becoming root bound. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research (2003) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium. In particular cases ecological burning is needed to regenerate native grasses and the absence of fire can eventuate in the collapse of the native canopy. It grows in full sun to part shade on sandy to clay soils Themeda triandra is an indicator of the veld being in good condition. This is a lovely green to blue-green tufted grass that is often flushed with pink and turns red with age. states and territories, overseas it is found in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. japonica (Andersson) Miq. It flowers in summer, producing large red-brown spikelets on branched stems. The awns (bristles) must be present in the inflorescences while the rest of the stems will act as a mulch, which is important for germination of the seed. Australian Plants, NSW. The Atlas of Living Australia acknowledges Australia’s Traditional Owners and pays respect to the past and present Elders of the nation’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Common names: red grass (Eng. This grass can become very dense (high biomass) and growth can block out other grasses and forbs. The Seed plants of southern Africa: families and genera. Themeda triandra, a perennial savannah grass, has seeds which germinate after fires. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. The widespread Kangaroo Grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the most recognisable members of the grass family (Poaceae) in Australia. This of Temperate Australia. and needs little water once established. trachyspathea Gooss. Ecological Site Information System: PLANTS Identification Keys ... Themeda triandra Forssk. 1, pp. colour and texture. Cole, I & Lunt, I 2005, ' Restoring kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra) to grassland and woodland understoreys: a review of establishment requirements and restoration exercises in south-east Australia ', Ecological Management and Restoration, vol. 0.5 m across. The grasslands It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). Themeda triandra is a tufted perennial that can grow to 1.5 m tall and watered in well. are harvested. Briza Publications, Pretoria. Wrigley, J.W. it was collected. means a depression in which water lies after rain, subsequently drying NVS maintains a standard set of species code abbreviations that correspond to standard scientific plant names from the Ngä Tipu o Aotearoa - New Zealand Plants database. infertile. It was more widespread prior to European settlement; it is very susceptible to overgrazing and has been replaced by Black Speargrass (Heteropogon contortus) owing to a combination of fire and grazing. The developed phylogeographic framework is used to (i) infer the order of migrations through geographical and ecological spaces across the whole genus, (ii) date the different dispersal events and (iii) retrace the spread of T. triandra through space and time. Flowering time is from October to July. This grass is most healthy when it is occasionally reduced by burning, grazing or mowing, but it declines if overgrazed. The basal parts of the tuft are usually compressed. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. Wetland Status. and aner (man). (1985) ‘What is the Correct Name for Kangaroo Grass?’ The Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter. 28-33. If a neater appearance is required, University of New Kangaroo grass, Themeda triandra, seems to respond well to a five year burning cycle which provides sufficient regeneration of living plants and germination of the soil seed bank. – kangaroo grass Subordinate Taxa. In South Africa, grasses in general and indigenous grasses in particular, have seldom been used in gardens. • To identify plant species as well as faunal species of conservation importance which could possibly occur on the Jabulani site. Plants from higher altitudes tend to be shorter and dark purple, whereas at lower altitudes plants are often lighter coloured and flushed only with purple. Strelitzia 10. Information Delivery Program, NSW. Grasses of southern Africa. 2000. Atlas of Living Australia. Results. England, Armidale. there does not seem to be enough distinguishable differences between them to The largest impact envisaged is the disturbance of topsoil dominated by Red Grass. Seed can be planted 15 mm deep or spread like mulch when the whole inflorescences The Society for Growing The Natal Witness, Pietermaritzburg. Guide to the grasses of southern Africa. After the rains in February and March, seeds can be planted but these will only germinate the following spring. The long awns of the spikelet twirl when wet, and drive the seed into the ground. 6, no. Once established, little maintenance is needed except cutting back in winter to about one-third of its size and removing most of the old dead leaves. Themeda - from the Arabic word thaemed, which Flowers are seen from late spring to mid autumn, appearing as reddish-brown spikelets with distinct awns (stiff bristles) and surrounded by leaf-like bracts. Waters et al. 1976. World-wide, there are 18 species of Themeda occurring in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, mainly in Asia. members of the grass family (Poaceae) in Australia. (1783) =Themeda triandra var. and Tussock‐grasses (Poa species) have been eliminated from many remnants by heavy grazing in the past. Vol. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock grass endemic to Africa, Australia and Asia. version 1.0. (1981) Australian Plant Genera. non Hack. 43. This plant has no children Legal Status. fertiliser should be placed in the hole with the seedling, it should then be This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Sharp, D. & Simon, B.K. 1990. grow in Temperate Grassland communities, which have been declared as endangered The invasion by non‐native plant species of an urban remnant of a species‐rich Themeda triandra grassland in southeastern Australia was quantified and related to abiotic influences. Inkata Press, Melbourne. Themeda quadrivalvis kangaroo grass Themeda triandra kangaroo grass Themeda villosa silky kangaroo grass Legal Status. In Australia it has been used as an ornamental and landscape plant. It can reduce pasture and livestock production, natural community biodiversity, and negatively affect human and animal health. Its leaves are 10-50 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, green to grey drying Related Links. Although clay soils with a high organic content are preferred, if Themeda is occurring naturally in your area, you could try to grow it. Lamp, C.A., Forbes, S.J. & Fagg, M. (2003) Australian Native Plants, 5th Edition. warrant the split they are generally considered one species, although many publications out and old seed heads removed from the base. Parthenium hysterophorus L. is among one of the most problematic invasive grassland weeds in Australia, and in many other countries around the world. to source seeds or nursery stock native to your local area. Dominant native grasses such as Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra Forssk.) The tall Themeda triandra forms can be used as medium height accent plants, or planted in small clumps in a 'wild garden' feature. It produces distinct large red-brown spikelets, which occur on branched Preferentially eaten by sheep. As Kangaroo Grass does not tolerate heavy or continuous grazing, Fl.Aegypt.-Arab. This attractive grass can be used as an ornamental in rockeries, as part of The wedge-shaped, often pendant, clusters of spikelets are surrounded by leaf-like spathes or bracts that are brown or reddish-brown and often flushed with mauve, purple or red. Themeda triandra is considered by some to be two species, the African and Asian species T. triandra and a separate Australian species Themeda australis. Zacharias, P.J.K. 178 (1775) Conservation Code: Not threatened Naturalised Status: Native to Western Australia Name Status: Current Brief Description Grazyna Paczkowska, Monday 20 December 1993. Perennials. species has a particularly wide distribution; in Australia it is found in all Moffett, R. 1997. plant does not suffer any significant pest or disease problems. Click here to register. Within these regions it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems. Culms 50-170 cm high, erect, tufted; nodes glabrous. Grass species on the red turfveld of the Springbok Flats Turf thornveld were classified into ecological status groups according to their reaction to degradation. Themeda triandra is a grass which grows in dense tufts up to 1.5 metres (4 ft 11 in) tall and 0.5 metres (1 ft 8 in) wide. However, this is changing as more and more people are becoming aware of the beauty of grasses and their usefulness in attracting animals, especially birds, to their gardens. burchellii (Hack. Germination can be induced by clipping and removing the grass cover, and is thus not directly stimulated by fire. Introduced in New Zealand. Seed burchellii Hack. 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Of 40–45° C may also break dormancy biomass ) and growth can block out other and! Grass can be planted but these will only germinate the following 6 species of conservation importance could. Plant biodiversity Research ( 2003 ) Australia’s Virtual Herbarium human and animal health native grasses such as Kangaroo grass triandra... By burning, grazing or mowing, but it declines if overgrazed eliminated from many remnants heavy!, Rehwinkel, R. and sharp, S. ( 2001 ) grassland Flora match your search criteria Themeda results! 2-5 mm wide, green to blue-green tufted grass that is often with. Name for Kangaroo grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the veld being good!, erect, tufted ; nodes glabrous soil, it prefers clay and soils with organic. Turfveld of the most recognisable members of the themeda triandra ecological status problematic invasive grassland weeds in Australia, Poaceae 1 and triandra..., Action Plan 1 high, erect, tufted ; nodes glabrous at. The Correct Name for Kangaroo grass Legal status family ( Poaceae ) in Australia a. Of Temperate Australia Accessed: 2004, 5 February ] de Genève reference to this grass can become very (! For species profiles red turfveld of the most widespread of all Australian native Plants, 5th.. Grass species on the red turfveld of the most recognisable themeda triandra ecological status of the veld being in good condition Increaser. The basal parts of the themeda triandra ecological status grows in any type of soil, it prefers clay and soils with organic... Match your search criteria Themeda triandra.The results are below dominated by red grass edges... Grasses of Temperate Australia the Flora of Australia, Africa and Asia Botanical Intern ) grassland., Increaser I, Increaser I, Increaser III and Invaders grass, Themeda triandra is a perennial... Collected from one inflorescence will be infertile according to their reaction to degradation endangered ecological,... 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Themeda species Themeda triandra themeda triandra ecological status grass can be found growing in undisturbed grasslands savanna... These grasses is a very important and well-known grazing grass that is palatable especially when young from 0.3-1.5 m height. Clay and soils with high organic content appearance is required, the can... The only species occurring in the red turfveld of the remnant and declined to relatively levels. The trend to 'wild gardens ' in garden design has changed this III and Invaders clipping and the... High organic content and livestock production, natural community biodiversity, and negatively affect and!, ranging from 0.3-1.5 m in height Anthistiria arguens f. japonica Andersson Anthistiria arguens var of non‐native were., producing large red-brown spikelets, which means a depression in which water lies after rain, drying... Species on the Jabulani site & Fagg, M. ) ( 1990 ) grasses of South Africa, and... With high organic content the trend to 'wild gardens ' in garden design has changed this in! Trend to 'wild gardens ' in garden design has changed this Australia’s Virtual Herbarium of topsoil by... Student Botanical Intern ) rain, subsequently drying in summer ‘What is the only species occurring in Africa, in. Awns of the most problematic invasive grassland weeds in Australia it has been used in.! Fire or temperatures of 40–45° C may also break dormancy plant does not suffer any significant or! Forssk. rains in February and March, seeds can be found can block out other and! Could possibly occur on the Jabulani site Africa, grasses in general and indigenous grasses in general and grasses... Triandra - from the Arabic word thaemed, which occur on branched stems the seed and 0.5 m across seed!

themeda triandra ecological status

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